Understanding Encopresis And Enuresis – Disorders In Kids

Source: hubpages.com


Encopresis and Enuresis are disorders in kids that parents and family should be knowledgeable of in order to deal with them.


Encopresis Disorder

Source: healthline.com


Encopresis is a disorder that poses repeated feces passage at inappropriate places which include the floor or the clothing of the child. Most of the cases of Encopresis Disorders are involuntary, but there are situations when the act is intentional.

Involuntary Encopresis is usually related to the following:

  • Constipation
  • Retention with Subsequent Overflow
  • Impaction

Due to psychological reasons, constipation may develop in the process. As explained also in Family Hype website, it could be due to the anxiety of having no control to defecate in a particular place or the necessity to follow a pattern of oppositional or anxious behavior. With this anxiety, it forces the person, in the end, to avoid defecating at all.

Some of the physiological predispositions when it comes to constipation are the following:

Complications may even occur once constipation has developed, including:

  • Anal Fissure
  • Painful Defecation
  • Further Fecal Retention

The consistency of the feces may vary from normal to liquid form. Most of the cases for the latter though is a result of overflow incontinence secondary to the fecal retention.

Encropesis disorder cases can occur for at least 3 months. Its chronological age, which is equivalent to the developmental level, can reach up to at least 4 years. This disorder is not related to general medical conditions or as a physiological side effect of substances like laxatives.

For treatment of Encropesis disorder, some experts would encourage appropriate bowel habits. For severe cases though, they may recommend laxatives or stool softeners to cater to constipation. “A physician should rule out the presence of physical causes for the presence of fecal soiling in children over age four years. The physician may proceed with treatment typically using top down oral medications on a maintenance basis following a clean out of a colon that is overfilled with feces,” according to Dr. Collins, a licensed psychologist.

The problem will be more complicated if the child has other mental health issues. As mentioned by Dr. Elizabeth Woodcock, a clinical psychologist, in her website, “Co-existing emotional and behavioural disorders should be treated separately according to evidence-based recommendations. If your child also has anxiety, depression, or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), these conditions should be treated concurrently.”

Enuresis Disorder

Source: mhmrcv.org


Enuresis disorder is the repeated voiding of urine that can either be involuntary or intentional. The voiding of urine can happen anytime, from the day to night and even when on the bed. The disorder can be manifested by:

  • Twice a week or at least 3 consecutive months of occurrence
  • Clinical distress in professional, academic, or social functions

Its developmental level can take at least 5 years and it may not be exclusively caused by direct physiological effect from a substance or a medical condition. “Enuresis is the inappropriate elimination of urine. The DSM 5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) indicates that the prevalence of enuresis is around 5%- 10% for children 5 years old and 3 % – 5% of 10 year olds,” according to Erica David, PsyD.

There are three subtypes of Enuresis Disorder that a child can suffer in, including the following:

Diurnal Only. This specific subtype is when the person voids urine during waking hours.  More common in females compared to males, the Diurnal Enuresis Disorder becomes uncommon after the age of 9 years. The incidences occur more frequently during the early afternoon. It is sometimes caused by the person’s reluctance to use the toilet due to preoccupation with an activity or it can be due to social anxiety.

Nocturnal Only. This is considered to be the most common form of Enuresis Disorder, where kids void urine at night. Incidents usually occur on the first one-third of the night and happen most commonly during the REM or rapid eye movement stage of sleep. In fact, the kid may even recall a dream that includes the act of urinating.

Diurnal and Nocturnal. This is the subtype combination of both the two forms mentioned above.

Treatment for Enuresis Disorder comes in the form of Desmopressin acetate. This therapy is for children and known to lessen the frequency of instances.



Understanding Kleptomania

Source: acnr.co.uk


Kleptomania is a rare condition where one has the constant urge to take something that is not his. It doesn’t have to be of any value, or he doesn’t even need it. Kleptomaniacs feel satisfaction after a successful theft. This condition has been very controversial and mysterious as people who have kleptomania are living with shame and keep their situation a secret. According to Jacquelyn Ekern, MS, LPC, “Kleptomania is behaviorally categorized as an impulse control disorder. Not only is the person fighting the kleptomania, they often have comorbid issues to deal with as well. Other types of mental disorders including eating, drug use, mood, impulse control, and anxiety are often present in conjunction with the kleptomania.”

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Coping with Empty Nest Syndrome – A painful reality



Empty Nest Syndrome is the depression aged people go through after their children leave home. Feeling empty, lonely and left out, the ‘second childhood’ (old age) brings in a surge of pain and grief.  “Empty nest syndrome is a very real feeling of grief and loss, including feelings of loneliness and a shifting of your sense of purpose. It most frequently happens when your children go off to college or start to live independently,” says Stephanie Sarkis, Ph.D., N.C.C., D.C.M.H.S., L.M.H.C.

Empty Nest Syndrome is not diagnosed as a depressive disorder, it is rather a phenomenon that old people undergo. There is still less awareness about how we can help parents cope with this.

The challenges of Empty Nest Syndrome

After the child moves out, parents face crucial challenges that become a harsh reality for them to handle.                                                 



  1. Adjusting themselves with the changing parent-child relationship.
  2. Reverting back to normal life without kids and finding new ways to fill the emptiness they are left with.
  3. Taking care of the household and other work which they often find difficult to do.
  4. Trying to accept the normality of the phenomena is the biggest challenge. All parents know that it is completely normal for the child to move out, yet the pain seems unbearable to them.
  5. For single parents, the situation is even more difficult as they are left to live all alone.


The symptoms of Empty Nest Syndrome include

  1. Unbearable sadness and grief when the child leaves home.
  2. Difficulty in carrying out the usual daily life functions.
  3. Reduced appetite and sleep.
  4. Frequent spells of crying and holding back to old memories.
  5. Difficulty maintaining a good relationship with the child after he/she moves out. Parents might blame the child out of distress.

 The Coping Strategies for the sufferers



Coping with the distress of Empty Nest Syndrome is not an easy task after all. The main reason for this is the age group of the sufferers. It cannot be denied that people in old age have less adjustment and acceptance capacities than young people. Hence the sadness seems unbearable for them.

  1. Engage in activities that you like – Doing things that make you happy is always a good way to uplift the mood. Resort to work like gardening, nature walking or cooking to keep yourselves engaged with the things you like to do.
  2. Meet up with old friends – Consider old age as a permanent break from all the duties and responsibilities you have been doing for years. Meet up with old friends, hang out with them and rejuvenate the old memories of life. It brings happiness and fills in the void.
  3. Spend quality time with yourself – Though it seems very difficult to look beyond the grief, try to pamper yourself as much you can. Cook your favorite dish, go out for shopping and redefine your self-worth that got burdened with the years.
  4. Set up frequent meetings with children and their family – Meet up with your kids, go to their homes or invite them to yours. This can create some beautiful memories that would improve the parent-child relation.
  5. Expect less, accept more – Try not to expect anything which can hurt you. People are often less sympathetic towards parents whose children move out as they consider it to be a normal phenomenon that every other parent faces. Expecting to be understood and heard often results in disappointment. Be your own best friend. That is the best way to get over the grief.                                                


  1. Reminiscence therapy – This is advised by therapists and is considered an effective way of coping with Empty Nest Syndrome. Parents who live alone can take out some time, maybe once or twice a week, or as frequently as they like, to go through old pictures and remember the happy moments of the past. Recalling the happy times replenishes the pains even if it is for a short while.

“Try to make some contact with other people who have been in similar circumstances,” Dr. Scott Bea PsyD says. “They can provide support by helping you feel more normal about some of the sentiments you’re experiencing. Through their experience, they also can help you to understand some of the feelings that your kids might be expressing.”

To help parents cope with Empty Nest Syndrome, children should accompany them in sailing through the storm without feeling lonely. The solution for this lies as much in the hands of the sufferer as the ones causing it. Not that anybody is to be held responsible, but the more empathetic children would be, the less painful Empty Nest Syndrome would be for parents. “Transitions in life can be difficult. If your transition to an empty nest has left you suffering from grief, depression, anxiety, or regret, make an appointment with a local therapist. It can be healing to discuss what you are experiencing with a trained and experienced professional.,” says Julie K. Jones, Ph.D., LPC.

Surviving The Dark Past

source: sciencenews.org


Tale of an Abused Child

I remember my own childhood every time I see my kids happy. My kids would laugh together and make jokes to one another. As for me, it wasn’t like that. My brother and I would hide in the closet scared to the bones as we wait until our stepfather would pass out and sleep. If we’d go out before he dozed off, we’d be whipped. At times,  Lance and I slept inside that closet overnight, afraid to get out. We’d hold each other and recite the song “You are my sunshine”. That was our way of releasing tension and fear.

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Selective Mutism And Stuttering In Children

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Selective Mutism and Stuttering are two of the socially disabling disorders that children can experience in their childhood years. According to Rachel Busman, PsyD, “Selective Mutism (SM) is first & foremost an anxiety disorder in which a child who is otherwise chatty or talkative can’t talk in other settings, like school or with friends.” Learning everything about these conditions can prepare you on how to deal with it especially if your child is exhibiting symptoms.

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Mental Health Is Precious

source: oasiscounselingtoday.com


Depression is a serious problem that a lot of us have to deal with every day, and it is undeniable that it can be a cause of some severe health problems. Most of us think that depression is not to be treated because some of us believe it is more like loneliness, but it is much more than that. “Sometimes the stigma of mental illness gets in the way of people getting the help they need.”, according to Jessica Koblenz, PsyD.Much more than people with severe depression who could not handle it any longer commit suicide. People with severe depression feel alone and think that no one can help them.

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Self-management Strategies for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

OCD is like having a bully stuck inside your head and nobody else can see it” – Krissy Mc Dermott.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a condition where the person experiences frequent, intrusive and unwelcome thoughts, images and impulses along with repetitive acts aimed at getting rid of them. “Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, images, or impulses that an individual experiences over and over again,” says Andrea Umbach, PsyD, a clinical psychologist who specializes in treating anxiety disorders at Southeast Psych in Charlotte, N.C.

Confronting obsessions is not an easy task for all. The immediate thoughts that would come up in most people’s mind are ‘ I should consult a psychiatrist or ‘ I must go to a Therapist near me’.  “One of the most popular and effective forms of behavioral therapy for OCD is exposure and response prevention (ERP). ERP involves exposing you to the anxiety that is provoked by your obsessions and then preventing the use of rituals to reduce your anxiety,” says clinical psychologist Owen Kelly, PhD.

But have we ever thought how we can deal with the problem ourselves? Undoubtedly psychotherapies like CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy) yield solutions for any anxiety disorder, but knowing how to manage the problem ourselves ensures it. This article is about some of the simple strategies that we can do to help ourselves out of the Obsessions and Compulsions.

Examples of Obsession

There are different types of obsessions that affect people of all ages. According to Kate Gibson, PsyD, “Obsessions are thoughts that get stuck repeating in someone’s head that they try to get rid of. These thoughts are intrusive and persistent, and they cause distress.” These obsessions lead to compulsive habits and start interfering with the normal functioning of the individual. Some of them are :

  1. Hand washing – Whereby the individual has a continuous thought of touching dirt and washes hands to undo this feeling. This can become so severe and uncontrollable that he/she might stop touching things at all.
  2. Checking – Where the person keeps on checking his/her doors, cupboards, etc whether they are locked. He/she stays unreasonably preoccupied with the order of things and feels uncomfortable if things are removed from their places.
  3. Sorcerous thoughts and undoing rituals – This involves having thoughts of a loved one being harmed or some other unpleasant thought and follows neutralizing the thoughts with good ones.
  4. Recurrent thoughts of self-harm – This involves a person having violent and harmful thoughts of harming himself or others and results in following a variety of complex avoidance and reassurance rituals.

The 5 best ways of managing OCD alone

  1. Notice your thoughts – begin with taking a note of the situations where the symptoms occur (images or impulses that come in your mind) and understand it. Having a track of thoughts helps to gain control over them.
  2. Pay attention to your actions – Obsessive thoughts can be controlled till they manifest themselves through actions. Be vigilant to your actions. The moment you feel you are doing something to neutralize the obsessions, check yourself before it is too late.
  3. Be Mindful – Obsessions get the mind so preoccupied that people become inattentive to the other things happening around. Be mindful about yourself and the environment – that itself does a lot in reducing the intrusive thoughts.
  4. Rate your problems – This technique is more often used in Cognitive Behavior Therapy, but it can be easily applied on self. The only thing to do is making a list of all the inappropriate thoughts that are running through the mind and rating them according to their severity. Once the numbers are before you, gaining insight becomes easy.
  5. Try to resist the compulsive actsChoose one compulsion and try resisting it. For example, as soon as you wonder whether you have locked the door, try recalling instead of checking. Once you feel that you have gained success in stopping it, then go on one by one till the habits fade away.

Always keep in mind that obsessions and compulsions get stronger the more we give way to them. Mental health professionals believe that “the goal of any good treatment is to teach you to become your own therapist.”

So before you seek for professional guidance, it is worth giving the aforesaid self-management skills a try to fight OCD.

Is Supportive Counseling The Best Way To Fight Depression?

Supportive counseling is another name for Person Centered Therapy. According to Ann Reitan, PsyD, “Carl Rogers created a theory and therapy indicated by the terms ‘umanistic theory’ and ‘person-centered therapy’.” A supportive counselor is one who listens to the problems of clients, supports them and makes them feel ‘understood’. It is often seen that having ‘someone to talk to’ is all one needs to get over his/her troubles; learn more about how people are turning to online therapy for professional help. Supportive counseling is comforting, advising, encouraging, reassuring and mostly listening attentively with sympathy to people suffering from depression and anxiety. According to Jerry Kennard, Ph.D., a Chartered Psychologist ,“During supportive counseling the opportunity to explore and clarify issues that can offer a greater sense of wellbeing will be explored. Your problems and the way you see things become the real focus of attention.” Extensive research on psychotherapy has proved that supportive counseling is the only therapy that can be used in combination with all existing therapies to get a better outcome.

Methods of Supportive Counseling – The answer to depression

  1. Emotional Ventilation – Supportive counseling lets the person vent out his/her anger , rage or grief. This process is good to be used in the early phases for most people have been observed to feel better after allowing all the rapid emotions to clear out. It is very important to make the patient ventilate emotions in the right talking the client clarify and seek out the thoughts so that he/she gains a better concept of the ‘why and how’ of his/her feelings and reactions.
  1. Elucidation – This is making the client clarify and seek out the thoughts so that he/she gains a better concept of the ‘why and how’ of his/her feelings and reactions.
  2. Active ListeningCarl Rogers believed “We think we listen, but very rarely do we listen with real understanding, true empathy. Yet listening, of this very special kind, is one of the most potent forces for change.” One of the essential requisites of supportive counseling is actively listening to the client. The feeling of being heard itself begins the healing process. Many problems seem to be unbearable until it is shared with someone. The supportive counselor becomes a friend to the client and listens with empathy without judging.
  3. Client Awareness – Discussing the problems and educating the client about his/her situation helps in gaining insight and acceptance. Supportive counseling ensure the client stays calm and accept with positivity.
  1. Suggestion with helpful guidance – For clients with low self-esteem and confidence, the counselor constantly reminds them of their positive sides and achievements. Counselors need to be very alert in providing their guidance in a correct manner so that it may prove valuable.
  2. Exteriorization of Interests – People who are overwhelmed with their problems should be helped out by the counselors by diverting their attention from the depressive and negative thoughts running in their minds to the pursuit of some activity or interest. In short, encouraging them with some mind refreshing hobbies.
  3. Making use of Social Support – Often being in a depressive situation people start losing on all social ties and embrace self-isolation resulting to more serious anxiety and depression. Thus counselors encourage their clients to renew intimate bonds which provide for social and emotional support.
  1. Doing more pleasurable activities – Depressed people often become so engrossed in grief that they fail to explore the happiness around. Supportive counselors provide aid in letting them do so. They advise (or sometimes insist) the clients to do things they love to do. That may be going out with friends, playing or listening to music, any pleasurable activity can work.

Supportive counseling does not make the client dependent on the counselor. Therefore the termination of the sessions does not relapse depression unlike many other forms of therapy which is why it is known as one of the best ways to challenge depression and issued as an adjunct to all other forms of anti-depression treatments.

One thing that we all should remember is – getting support is easy, but being our own support can shield us from many adversities. Supportive therapy is one way of making us able to do so.

Depression doesn’t mean you are weak, so never step back from seeking help and healing yourself. “Depression is not a weakness of character, laziness, or a phase.”, according to Deborah Serani, PsyD. You are in charge of your happiness.

Anxiety Attacks and Dealing With Them

“Anxiety does not empty tomorrow of its sorrows, but only empties today of its strength”- Charles Spurgeon.


Anxiety is a condition of intense fear and discomfort that is often accompanied by unexpected panic attacks. According to Scott Bea, PsyD, “Anxiety is really a reaction in our body and brain that can be a feeling of worry, apprehension, sometimes excitement in anticipation of an event or in the face of uncertainties.” Anxiety Attack help is widely available now. The attacks are a lot like being drunk in some ways, you lose self-control and cry for seemingly no reason. Anxiety attacks develop due to some sudden unexpected fearsome incident over a short span of 10-15 minutes.

Symptoms of the attacks

  • Shivering of hands and legs followed by excessive sweating, palpitation.
  • Feeling shortness of breath along with a slight chest pain(might even result in a heart attack).
  • Nausea along with dizziness. “You can get stomach pain or digestive problems [with anxiety] because the body reduces digestive functioning,” according to licensed clinical psychologist Aimee Daramus, PsyD.
  • Feeling a total lack of sensation in the entire body along with a tingling effect.
  • Too much anxiety might also result in hypoglycemia and hyperthyroidism. Generalized anxiety disorder is a condition which develops over a certain period of time due to some shocking and violent incident. This also has certain symptoms like
  • The inability to concentrate; a feeling of restlessness and temporary loss of energy and strength.
  • Violent and uncontrollable anger with frequent peevishness.
  • Inability to sleep along with a problem in the metabolic system.

Controlling Anxiety Attacks                                                          



  1. Make a way out plan – Often, people are stuck in situations that might trigger anxiety, but having an exit plan in order to get out of the situation can help the mind keep its control. “Find a safe place to be – the floor, your bed, the bathroom – and if possible, go there.  If you are in public, find a place to sit or lie down.”, suggests Alicia H. Clark, PsyD.
  2. Have someone you can always talk to – Patients suffering from anxiety should always get in-touch with a person on whom they can rely and can vent out their feelings. Sometimes talking with a person who guides you towards the positive side of everything can help lower anxiety levels.
  3. Cry (if needed) – Sometimes, crying and throwing out the pent up heavy emotions relieve us a quite a bit. Just go to your room and simply let out your emotions, this helps lighten your heart.
  4. Keep a handy ataractic drug – If one feels that even after practicing certain natural ways to reduce anxiety, it may accidentally hit them and they might lose control of the situation, they can keep an ataractic drug or a tranquilizer with them. But make sure to resist it as much possible.
  5. Go for a walk and exercise – A 10-15 minutes walk in some natural environment along with an hour of some free hand exercises can act as a stress reliever. Exercising regularly (or for at least 3-4 times a week) can help a person become less prone to anxiety attacks.
  6. Tratak meditation – This type of meditation includes a person (suffering from anxiety) to stare at oneself in the mirror for some time. It is proven to return the person his self-belief and confidence. This should be done when one is patient enough to help himself resist anxiety.
  7. Laughing – Having a good hearty laugh can calm your nerves and make your mood light (try watching funny videos or reading comics ).
  8. Get plenty of sleep and restrain from alcoholic drinks – getting a good amount of sleep releases the tension; resistance from alcoholic drinks, smoking, etc helps reduce anxiety.

Conquering anxiety takes time indeed, but if the right therapy is applied in dealing with these cases, it can be cured. It all depends on the resiliency of the person. As said by Shelley “life is not how it’s supposed to be. It is the way it is. The way you cope up with it is what makes the difference.”